The interior of a Eukaryotic Cell, from the outer membrane through the cytosol to the nucleus. All molecular structures are colored by their function; the cytoskeleton is blue, membranes are green, ribosomes are purple, RNA and spliceosomes are pink, DNA and nucleosomes are yellow. This cell is producing antibodies, all steps of the process are visualized in order from the bottom to the top of the image.
First DNA is transcribed to RNA, and the RNA is spliced before leaving the nucleus through a nuclear pore. Translation begins when the RNA becomes bound to a ribosome, which converts the genetic sequence to a linear protein. The proteins are folded and sorted inside the Golgi Complex, and then packaged into vesicles by the geodesic Clathrin Assembly. These vesicles are pulled along microtubules by kinesin motors. The vesicles then fuse with the outer membrane, and the antibodies are released into the bloodstream.
Illustration by David Goodsell
(from Greek κύτος, kytos, “a hollow”; and -λογία, -logia) “the study of cells”. Cytology is the branch of life science which deals with the study of cells in terms of structure, function and chemistry.
David Goodsell is one of my very, very favorite artists.